- جراحة العمود الفقري
- جراحة العمود الفقري القطني
- الانزلاق الغضروفي
- كسر في العمود الفقري
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Hammer toe, which is sometimes also referred to as mallet toe, is a type of foot deformity that prevents the toes from staying straight, causing them to bend or curl downwards. Hammer toe most often affects the second, third or fourth toes. If left untreated, hammer toes can require surgery.
Hammer toe is defined by a bent toe in one or more toe. Moving the affected toes can cause pain or discomfort. It is common for corns or calluses to form on the affected toes and walking can become difficult.
A physical examination by a doctor will usually be able to confirm a diagnosis of hammer toe. You may also have an X-ray if bone or tendon damage is suspected.
A hammer toe bends because the middle joint of the toe becomes curled and bent downwards. This can be attributed to a number of causes, including:
The following measures reduce the risk of hammer toe forming:
Treatment will depend on the severity of the hammer toe. Milder cases can be treated at home, using a combination of comfortable shoes, shoe cushions or pads and treatments for any bunions or corns. Gently stretching the toes can help to relieve pain and discomfort.
More severe cases of hammer toe where you are unable to move the affected toe at all has to be relieved with surgery. Surgery can restore movement to the toe by either removing disfigured bone or realigning the tendons. Surgery is usually done as a day case, with local anaesthetic, but in very severe cases, this may involve a hospital stay and general anaesthetic.