Under the concept of cognitive impairment are disorders that cause cognitive problems such as processing and remembering information. They can also affect the perception, attention, language and memory functions. The most common cognitive disorders include delirium, amnesia, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc. Also, some cognitive disorders can be caused by stroke or head trauma. Among children there are common disorders that affect the cognitive development area of language or attention, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Currently, the vast majority of these alterations may be treated partially or completely by early diagnosis, drug therapy and personalised therapies, including a multidisciplinary treatment.